New Genotype Form
alpha-1-genotype-tool results comments
*The Spanish Society of Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery Guidelines recommend an annual evaluation of liver function (includes an analysis of ALT, AST, bilirubin, albumin and coagulation tests).
†The Journal of the COPD Foundation Clinical Practice Guidelines recommend annual monitoring of individuals with AAT deficiency (includes an analysis of ALT, AST, GST, bilirubin, albumin, INR, platelet and liver ultrasound); the recommendation is strong with a low quality of evidence.
‡The American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society Joint Statement recommends regular physical examinations that include liver function tests and ultrasound examination; in individuals with decompensated cirrhosis periodic CT imaging.
§Strength of the evidence and grading of recommendations: Grade 2B means the strength of the recommendation is weak, with desirable effects closely balanced with undesirable effects2 with the quality of evidence based on randomised trials with limitations including inconsistent results or major methodological weaknesses (B). Grade 2C means the strength of the recommendation is weak, with desirable effects closely balanced with undesirable effects2 with the quality of evidence based on observational studies and generalisations from randomised trials in one group of patients applied to another.
AAT: alpha1 antitrypsin; ALT: alanine transaminase; AST: aspartate aminotransferase; COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CT: computed tomography; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 second; GST: glutathione S-transferase; INR: international normalised ratio.